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Protocol Information

Native Plant Nursery
USDI NPS - Glacier National Park
West Glacier, Montana 59936
(406) 888-7835


Family Scientific Name: Portulacaceae
Family Common Name: Bitterroot family
Scientific Name: Lewisia rediviva Pursh
Common Name: Bitterroot
Species Code: LEWRED
Ecotype: Glacier National Park, 1585m elev., Montana
General Distribution: L. rediviva occurs in gravelly to dry soils, from sagebrush plains to lower elevations in the mountains. It ranges from southern B.C. to southeast Alberta, east of the Cascades in Washington and Oregon south to California; east to Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, Utah, Nevada, and Arizona.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Stock Type: 160 ml conetainers
Time To Grow: 2 Years
Target Specifications: Stock Type: Container seedling
Height: 6 true leaves, 5 cm
Caliper: n/a
Root System: Developed taproot in conetainer.
Propagule Collection: Seeds are collected in mid summer when the corolla turns papery and the disseminule breaks away from the stem. Development and ripening of the seeds occurs over a 2 to 3 week period. Seeds are shiny black at maturity.
Propagule Processing: Seed storage is at least 5 years under cool, dry conditions.
Seed dormancy is classified as physiological dormancy.
Seeds/Kg: unknown
% Purity: 100%
% Germination: 50%
Pre-Planting Treatments: Seeds are treated with a 60 to 90 day cold, moist stratification. Seeds are imbibed in water, rolled in moistened paper towels inserted into an opened zip-lock bag that is placed in the refrigerator at 1 to 3 C.
Germination occurs in early spring at temperatures slightly above freezing to 10 C.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Outdoor nursery growing facility.
Sowing Method: Direct Seeding. Seeds are covered with medium.
Growing medium used is 6:1:1 milled spaghnum peat, perlite, and vermiculite with Osmocote controlled release fertilizer (13N:13P2O5:13K2O; 8 to 9 month release rate at 21C) and Micromax fertilizer (12%S,0.1%B,0.5%Cu,12%Fe,2.5%Mn, 0.05%Mo,1%Zn) at the rate of 1 gram of Osmocote and 0.20 gram of Micromax per 172 ml conetainer.
Conetainers are filled and sown in late fall and irrigated thoroughly prior to winter stratification.
Seedlings germinate in spring under fluctuating outdoor temperatures and are grown under full sun exposure. Seedlings are irrigated with Rainbird automatic irrigation system in early morning until containers are thoroughly leached.
Average growing season of nursery is from late April after snowmelt until October 15th.
Establishment Phase: Seedlings emerge 14 days after sowing under cool fluctuating temperatures. True leaves appeared 3 weeks after germination. Seedlings go dormant by mid-summer in late June and early July. First year root diameter at time of dormancy was 0.2 cm diameter. Second year root diameter was 0.5 cm. Seedlings are susceptible to overwatering and should be kept dry during dormant phase.
Length of Establishment Phase: 6 weeks
Active Growth Phase: Seedlings grow during cool temperatures of early spring to early summer. Seedlings are fertlized with 20-10-20 NPK liquid fertlizer during active growth. Seedlings must dry down beteween irrigations and during the dormant phase in mid to late summer.
During late September, leaves re-emerge and plants receive regular irrigation and fertlization for 6 to 8 weeks until snowfall.
Flowering maturity is not expected until year 3 or 4.
Length of Active Growth Phase: 6 weeks(summer)4 weeks (fall)
Hardening Phase: During fall growth, seedlings are fertilized with 10-20-20 liquid NPK at 200 ppm in the fall. Containers are flushed with water, and irrigation frequency
Length of Hardening Phase: 8 weeks
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Total Time To Harvest: 2 to 3 years
Harvest Date: July or August
Storage Conditions: Overwinter in outdoor nursery under insulating foam and snow cover.
Length of Storage: 5 months
Other Comments: Good medium aeration is important for growth.
Active growth of seedlings is limited to early spring to early summer and a brief 4 week period in late fall.
References: Bitterroot, J. DeSanto, Lere Press, 1993.

Flora of the Pacific Northwest, Hitchcock and Cronquist, Univ. of Washington Press, 7th printing, 1973.

Glacier Park Native Plant Nursery Propagation Records, unpublished.

Seed Germination Theory and Practice, 2nd Edition, Deno, Norman, publ. 1993.

Citation:
DeSanto, Jerry; Luna, Tara.; Evans, Jeff.; Wick, Dale. 2008. Propagation protocol for production of container Lewisia rediviva Pursh plants (160 ml conetainers); USDI NPS - Glacier National Park, West Glacier, Montana. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 31 October 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.