John M. Englert
USDA NRCS - Norman A. Berg National Plant Materials Center
Bldg. 509, BARC - East, E. Beaver Dam Road
Beltsville, Maryland 20705
|Family Scientific Name:
|Family Common Name:
||New York ironweed
||George Washington Memorial Parkway, Great Smoky Mountains National Park
||Massachusetts, southeast New York, southern Ohio to Mississippi. Found in low wet woods and marshes, especially near coast.
||Plug + (container-field grown hybrids)
||Stock Type: Container plug.
Root System: Firm full plug; roots fill container.
||Collected at George Washington Memorial Parkway, Dead Run and TRI by J. Englert in 11/95; Great Smoky Mountains National Park, by J. Beeler on 10/21/99 and 10/26/00.
||Seed Processing: Seed was hand-harvested from National Plant Materials Center production blocks in early November. In 1999, a small lot of hand-collected seed was cleaned by first picking out stems by hand and hand-rubbing to remove fluff. It was then run through a small clipper screen with no top screen. The bottom screen was size 0/38. Fan speed was set on medium with the vents nearly closed. A seed lot too large to hand clean was processed in a debearder to remove the pappus. Seed was further cleaned in a small clipper (top screen: 1/12x1/2, bottom screen: 1/38, with fan speed on medium and vent opened slightly).
Germination: Great Smoky Mountains, in 2000: 177 plugs produced per gram of seed sown.
||Seed Treatments: In germination tests conducted at the Nationa Plant Materials Center during summer of 1997, seed that was given a 4 week cool stratification period had over 80 times the germination of unstratified seed. We have routinely given this species a 4-week stratification period since then.
|Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:
Propagation Environment: Greenhouse with alternating day/night temperatures; daytime temperatures vary from 70-85ºF depending on natural solar; night temperatures average around 65-68ºF. Plugs were grown under 14-16 hour long day conditions using high pressure sodium lighting from 4:30-10:30 p.m.
Seed Propagation Method: Seeds are hand-sown in plug propagation trays.
Container Type and Volume: started in 392 germination plug trays; transplanted to Ropak Multipots or 72 plug trays.
Growing Media: Seed is sown into germination mix. Seedlings are transplanted into Sunshine #1 or #5 potting mix, amended with 18-6-8,180-day Nutricote SR at 0.15 lb./cu. ft., or 20 oz. per 3.8 cu. ft. bale of potting media.
||Sowing Date: January.
Sowing/Planting Technique: Seed is surface-sown into moist germination trays, given a fungicidal drench, covered with clear plastic and put in the National Plant Materials Center cooler at 40ºF for 4 weeks. Trays are returned to the greenhouse bench and plastic is removed when most of the cells have germinated.
Establishment Phase: Seedlings are kept evenly moist by hand or under mist and are transplanted to Ropak multipots approximately 3 weeks after germination.
|Active Growth Phase:
||Rapid Growth Phase: Occurs after transplant. Plants are given soluble fertilizer (17-17-17 plus at 100 ppm N) feedings as needed or approximately bi-weekly to maintain leaf color. Plugs may need to be spaced out in the plug trays to avoid over-crowding. Treat for greenhouse pests as needed.
||Hardening Phase: Approximately 2 weeks prior to outplanting, plugs are moved outdoors, weather permitting or greenhouse is cooled down and fertilization is stopped.
|Harvesting, Storage and Shipping:
||Total Time to Harvest: Approximately 14 weeks from germination to outplanting.
Harvest Date: Plugs are ready for outplanting at about 14 weeks post germination.
Storage Conditions: Plugs are not overwintered.
Seed storage: Seed is stored in cloth seed collection bags in National Plant Materials Center cooler at 40ºF and 35% relative humidity.
Seed dormancy: A 4-week cool, moist stratification period appears to improve germination (see “Seed Treatment”).
|Outplanting performance on typical sites:
||Outplanting Site: George Washington Memorial Parkway, Great Smoky Mountains National Park seed production fields.
Outplanting Date: Spring (April or May).
||Peterson, R. and M. A. McKenny. 1968. Field Guide to Wildflowers. Houghton Mifflin.
Gleason, H. A. and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada, 2nd edition. New York Botanical Garden.
|Kujawski, Jennifer; Davis, Kathy M. 2001. Propagation protocol for production of plug + transplants of Vernonia noveboracensis plants; USDA NRCS - Norman A. Berg National Plant Materials Center, Beltsville, Maryland. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 11 December 2013). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.|