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Protocol Information

Native Plant Nursery
USDI NPS - Glacier National Park
West Glacier, Montana 59936
(406) 888-7835


Family Scientific Name: Asteraceae
Family Common Name: Sunflower Family
Scientific Name: Achillea millefolium L. (Nutt.) Piper
Common Synonym: Achillea lanulosa Nutt.
Common Name: Yarrow
Species Code: ACHMIL
Ecotype: Subalpine meadow Logan Pass, Glacier National Park
General Distribution: A. millefolium is a circumboreal species found throughout North America, Europe and Asia. It grows from sealevel to the alpine zone in a variety of habitats. It has a very broad and diverse ecological amplitude, being a frequent colonizer of disturbed areas from sea level to the alpine zone.
It is an important pioneer, long-lived perennial forb that spread by rhizomes once established on outplanting sites.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Stock Type: 172 ml conetainers
Time To Grow: 4 Months
Target Specifications: Height: 10 cm
Caliper: n/a
Root System: firm plug in conetainer
Propagule Collection: Seeds are collected by cutting entire inflorescence and the disk achenes are brown. Seeds mature in late summer and early fall. Seeds are light tan at maturity. Seeds are collected in paper bags and kept in a well ventilayed greenhouse during the drying process and prior to cleaning.
Collection Locality: Logan Pass, Glacier National Park,MT
Propagule Processing: Seeds are cleaned with a hammermill, screens, and fanning mill.
Seed longevity is 3 to 5 years in sealed containers at 1C.
Seed dormancy is classified as non dormant.
Seeds per kilogram: 4,700,000/kg
% Purity: 100%
% Germination: 90% to 100%
Pre-Planting Treatments: None
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Outdoor nursery growing facility or Greenhouse.
Sowing Method: Direct Seeding. Seeds are lightly covered with medium.
Growing medium used is milled sphagnum peat, perlite, and vermiculite with Osmocote controlled release fertilizer (13N:13P2O5:13K2O; 8 to 9 month release rate at 21C) and Micromax fertilizer (12%S, 0.1%B, 0.5%Cu, 12%Fe, 2.5%Mn, 0.05%Mo, 1%Zn) at the rate of 1 gram of Osmocote and 0.20 gram of Micromax per 172 ml conetainer. Conetainers are filled and sown in late fall if grown outdoors in the nursery or just prior too sowing in the greenhouse. Conetainers are irrigated thoroughly after sowing.
Establishment Phase: Medium is kept slightly moist during germination. Germination occurs at 22C. Germination is usually complete in 14 days. Seedlings are thinned at the true leaf stage.
Length of Establishment Phase: 3 weeks
Active Growth Phase: Shoot and root development occur rapidly following germination. Additional fertilizer was not required for plants to obtain root tightness in 3 to 4 weeks. Plants were flowering 6 weeks after germination.
Length of Active Growth Phase: 6 weeks
Hardening Phase: Irrigation is gradually reduced in September and October. Plants are leached with clear water and fertilized with 10-20-20 lquid NPK fertilizer once before winterization.
Length of Hardening Phase: 8 weeks
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Total Time To Harvest:4 months
Harvest Date: June to July
Storage Conditions: Overwinter in outdoor nursery under insulating foam cover and snow.
Length of Storage: 5 months
Outplanting performance on typical sites: Outplanitng Site: Logan Pass, Glacier National Park, MT.
Outplanting Date: After snowmelt at high elevations.
Other Comments: Vegetative Propagation Method: Yarrow is rhizomatous and can be propagated by divisions.
There are 3 botanical varieties; var. lanulosa (non maritime), var. alpicola (alpine), and var. californica (maritime).
References: Flora of the Pacific Northwest, Hitchcock and Cronquist, 7th edition, University of Washington Press, 1973.

Seeding Rate Statistics for Native and Introduced Species, Hassell, Wendel, U.S.D.I. and U.S.D.A., April 1996.

Seeds: Ecology, Biogeography, and Evolution of Dormancy and Germination, Baskin and Baskin, Academic Press, 1998.

Seed Germination: Theory and Practice, 2nd Edition, Deno, Norman, 1993.

Glacier National Park Native Plant Nursery Propagation Records, unpublished.

Citation:
Luna, Tara; Evans, Jeff.; Wick, Dale. 2008. Propagation protocol for production of container Achillea millefolium L. (Nutt.) Piper plants (172 ml conetainers); USDI NPS - Glacier National Park, West Glacier, Montana. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 1 August 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.