John M. Englert
Natural Resources Conservation Service - Norman A. Berg National Plant Materials Center
Bldg. 509, BARC - East, E. Beaver Dam Road
Beltsville, Maryland 20705
|Family Scientific Name:
|Family Common Name:
||Shenandoah National Park
||Maine to Florida, west to Nebraska and Louisiana. Found in dry woodlands.
||Stock Type: Container plug.
Root System: Firm full plug; roots fill container.
||Collected at Shenandoah National Park, Skyline Drive, mileposts 7.1, 102-105, 106 (Signal Knob on left) by J. Englert on 8/21/92 and 9/21/92; by G/D Meyer on 8/25/94.
||Seed Processing: Seed was harvested from the National Plant Materials Center production fields from late August through November by combine. Gold finches and other birds loved the seed and would often strip the field before it could be harvested. Problems were encountered with the combine which chopped chaff to same size and weight as seed and resulted in difficulty separating seed for cleaning. Seed was cleaned with large clipper, screens 6, 8, and small clipper, 1/15, blank.
Purity: Extremely variable from 12-57%. See seed processing.
||Seed Treatments: Seeded trays were given 3-4 weeks cool moist stratification in seed cooler.
|Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:
Propagation Environment: Greenhouse with alternating day/night temperatures; daytime temperatures vary from 70-85ºF depending on natural solar; night temperatures average around 65-68ºF. Plugs were grown under 14-16 hour long day conditions using high pressure sodium lighting from 4:30-10:30 p.m.
Seed Propagation Method: Seeds are hand-sown in plug propagation trays.
Container Type and Volume: Started in 392 germination plug trays; transplanted to Ropak Multipots or 72 plug trays.
Growing Media: Seed is sown into germination mix. Seedlings are transplanted into Sunshine #1 or #5 potting mix, amended with 18-6-8,180-day Nutricote SR at 0.15 lb./cu. ft., or 20 oz. per 3.8 cu. ft. bale of potting media.
||Sowing Date: December.
% Emergence and Date: In 1997, 7-12 days with uncovered trays hand misted. This seed has had poor germination so trays were heavily seeded and no gram weight was recorded.
Sowing/Planting Technique: Seeds are hand sown into germination mix. Flats are given a fungicidal drench, covered with plastic, stratified for 4 weeks and, after returning to the bench, kept evenly moist until well-germinated.
Establishment Phase: Transplanted from germination trays to Ropak multipots at 3-4 weeks post germination.
|Active Growth Phase:
||Rapid Growth Phase: Provided even moisture, treated for usual greenhouse pests as needed and fertilized lightly approximately bi-weekly or as needed with soluble fertilizer at 100 ppm N. Foliar cutback at approximately 6 weeks, or as needed.
||Hardening Phase: Plugs are hardened off by cooling greenhouse down or placing plug trays outdoors, weather permitting approximately 2 weeks prior to outplanting and discontinuing fertilizer at this time.
|Harvesting, Storage and Shipping:
||Total Time to Harvest: Approximately 12 weeks from germination to finished plug.
Storage Conditions: Plugs not overwintered.
|Outplanting performance on typical sites:
||Outplanting Site: Shenandoah National Park, National Plant Materials Center seed production field.
Outplanting Date: Spring.
||Gleason, H. A. and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada, 2nd edition. New York Botanical Garden.
|Kujawski, Jennifer; Davis, Kathy M. 2002. Propagation protocol for production of container Helianthus divaricatus seeds; Natural Resources Conservation Service - Norman A. Berg National Plant Materials Center, Beltsville, Maryland. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 2 July 2015). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.|