John M. Englert
USDA NRCS - Norman A. Berg National Plant Materials Center
Bldg. 509, BARC - East, E. Beaver Dam Road
Beltsville, Maryland 20705
|Family Scientific Name:
|Family Common Name:
||Shenandoah National Park
||Maryland to Florida and Arkansas; has escaped northward. Found in dry soils, open woodlands and along roadsides.
||Stock Type: Container plug.
Root System: Firm full plug; roots fill container.
||Collected at Shenandoah National Park, Sawmill Ridge Overlook, Mile 96 by G. Meyer and D. Meyer on 8/26/94; by J. Englert on 8/20/92 and 9/21/92.
||Seed Processing: Seed is harvested by hand in August and cleaned by rubbing it over a rubber mat then running it through a large clipper (screen sizes 1,11) and small clipper (screen size 7).
Seeds/Kg: 1,250,000 approximately.Germination: No germination tests done; production has varied from 60 to 108 plugs per gram of seed sown.
||Seed Treatments: None needed.
|Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:
Propagation Environment: Greenhouse with alternating day/night temperatures; daytime temperatures vary from 70-85ºF depending on natural solar; night temperatures average around 65-68ºF. Plugs were grown under 14-16 hour long day conditions using high pressure sodium lighting from 4:30-10:30 p.m.
Seed Propagation Method: Seeds were hand-sown in germination trays at 1-2 per cell and lightly covered.
Container Type and Volume: Started in 392 germination plug trays; transplanted to Ropak Multipots or 72 plug trays. Occasionally bumped up to quarts if held for more than 6 months.
Growing Media: Seed is sown into germination mix. Seedlings are transplanted into Sunshine #1 or #5 potting mix, amended with 18-6-8,180-day Nutricote SR at 0.15 lb./cu. ft., or 20 oz. per 3.8 cu. ft. bale of potting media.
||Sowing Dates: 1) August – plants were bumped up to quarts and held until planting in April. 2) January – for April outplanting as plugs.
% Emergence and Date: Seedlings begin to emerge within 8-12 days. Uniformity of germination may be improved by a two week stratification period.
Sowing/Planting Technique: Seedlings in germination trays need to be kept evenly moist. We have put trays under mist, but slowing of growth may occur if left too long.
Establishment Phase: Seedlings are transplanted to multipots or 72 trays approximately 3 weeks after germination. Keep potting mix evenly moist but not saturated and do not allow crust to form on surface.
|Active Growth Phase:
||Rapid Gowth Phase: Transplanted plugs are lightly fertilized approximately bi-weekly, or as needed, with a soluble fertilizer (Technigro 16-17-17 at about 100 ppm). Cutbacks are performed at around 8-9 weeks to promote healthy top growth, and to control insect pests and powdery mildew. Spot treat with insecticides and fungicides as needed. Powdery mildew may be a problem during wet, rainy weather. Horticultural oil has been used successfully as a barrier treatment.
||Hardening Phase: Approximately 2 weeks prior to outplanting, temperatures are reduced in the green house or plants are moved outdoors to a sheltered location, weather permitting, and fertilization is stopped.
|Harvesting, Storage and Shipping:
||Total Time to Harvest: Approximately 13 weeks from germination to outplanting.
Storage Conditions: Plugs have not been overwintered at the National Plant Materials Center.
|Outplanting performance on typical sites:
||Outplanting Site: Shenandoah National Park.
Outplanting Date: April or May.
Seed storage: Seed was stored in seed collection bags in National Plant Materials Center cooler at 40ºF and 35% relative humidity.
||Brown, M. L. and R. G. Brown. 1984. Herbaceous Plants of Maryland. Port City Press, Inc.
Gleason, H. A. and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada, 2nd edition. New York Botanical Garden.
|Kujawski, Jennifer; Davis, Kathy M. 2001. Propagation protocol for production of container Coreopsis verticillata plants; USDA NRCS - Norman A. Berg National Plant Materials Center, Beltsville, Maryland. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 12 December 2013). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.|