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Protocol Information

John M. Englert
Natural Resources Conservation Service - Norman A. Berg National Plant Materials Center
Bldg. 509, BARC - East, E. Beaver Dam Road
Beltsville, Maryland 20705
(301) 504-8175
(301) 504-8741
john.englert@wdc.usda.gov
http://plant-materials.nrcs.usda.gov/mdpmc/


Family Scientific Name: Asteraceae
Family Common Name: Aster Family
Scientific Name: Coreopsis major
Common Name: Whorled coreopsis
Species Code: CORMAJ
Ecotype: Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Cumberland Gap National Historical Park
General Distribution: Southern Pennsylvania and Ohio, south to Florida and Mississippi. Found in dry open woods. Note: A variation, ‘rigida’ with narrower leaves occurs in the mountains from Virginia to Tennessee.
Propagation Goal: Seeds
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Container (plug)
Target Specifications: Stock Type: Container plug.
Height: 4-6”.
Root System: Firm full plug; roots fill container.
Propagule Collection: Collected in Cumberland Gap National Historical Park, Skyland Road by RR/AR on 10/10/90; Great Smoky Mountains National Park Covew Mt. Trail, FHP West (Wears Valley Sect.), Little River Road by G. Taylor and J. Marshall on 9/16/96; by M. Kloster and S. Altman on 9/11/97; by S. Altman on 10/2/97.
Propagule Processing: Seed Processing: Seed is harvested by hand with shears in late September at the National Plant Materials Center. Cleaned with a hammermill, screen # 5, slow speed; clipper screen #9/10 – collects in bottom pan; screen #13, 1/2 air – collects in 1st fan tray at top. Also cleaned with debearder, large clipper – screens 10 and 13 with low air flow.
Seed storage: Seed was stored in seed collection bags in National Plant Materials Center cooler at 40186;F and 35% relative humidity.
Seed dormancy: This seed would probably benefit from a 2-3 week cool stratification period.
Seeds/Kg: Approximately 1,100,000.
Germination: Untested.
Purity: 56%.
Pre-Planting Treatments: Seed Treatments: None.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Propagation Environment: Greenhouse with alternating day/night temperatures; daytime temperatures vary from 70-85ºF; night temperatures average around 65-68ºF. Plugs were grown under 14-16 hour day lengths extended with high pressure sodium lighting.
Seed Propagation Method: Hand sown into plug trays.
Container Type and Volume: Started in 392 germination plug trays; transplanted to Ropak Multipots or 72 plug trays.
Growing Media: Seed is sown into germination mix. Seedlings are transplanted into Sunshine #1 or #5 potting mix, amended with 18-6-8,180-day Nutricote SR @ 0.15 lb./cu. ft., or 20 oz. per 3.8 cu. ft. bale of potting media.
Establishment Phase: Sowing Date: February (first sowing) March (second sowing).
% Emergence and Date: Less than 10% from both 1996 and 1997 seed; uneven germination occurring over 7 to 43 days. (Recommend a stratification period for future sowings to see if germination amount or uniformity improves.)
Sowing/Planting Technique: Because of the extremely low germination of this seed, it was sown heavily (6 grams/392 tray). Tripling the amount of seed resulted in only double the amount of seedlings.
Establishment Phase: Seedlings are transplanted to multipots or 72 trays approximately 3 weeks after germination. Keep potting mix evenly moist but not saturated and do not allow crust to form.
Active Growth Phase: Rapid Gowth Phase: Transplanted plugs are lightly fertilized approximately bi-weekly, or as needed, with a soluble fertilizer (Technigro 16-17-17 @ about 100 ppm). Cutbacks are performed at around 8-9 weeks to promote healthy top growth, and to control pests.
Hardening Phase: Hardening Phase: Approximately 2 weeks prior to outplanting, temperatures are reduced in the green house or plants are moved outdoors to a sheltered location, weather permitting, and fertilization is stopped.
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Total Time to Harvest: Approximately 13 weeks from germination to outplanting.
Storage Conditions: Plugs were not overwintered. Seed storage: Seed was stored in seed collection bags in National Plant Materials Center cooler at 40ºF and 35% relative humidity.
Seed dormancy: This seed would probably benefit from a 2-3 week cool stratification period.
Outplanting performance on typical sites: Outplanting Site: The following information is based on production of a small number of seedlings in 1997 and 1998 for field planting at the National Plant Material Center. Propagation was only marginally successful because of low germination rates in this accession. The National Plant Material Center has had established seed production fields of C. major since 1991.
Outplanting Date: May – June at the National Plant Materials Center.
References: Brown, M. L. and R. G. Brown. 1984. Herbaceous Plants of Maryland. Port City Press, Inc.

Gleason, H. A. and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada, 2nd edition. New York Botanical Garden.

Citation:
Kujawski, Jennifer; Davis, Kathy M. 2001. Propagation protocol for production of container Coreopsis major seeds; Natural Resources Conservation Service - Norman A. Berg National Plant Materials Center, Beltsville, Maryland. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 1 August 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.