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Protocol Information

John M. Englert
Natural Resources Conservation Service - Norman A. Berg National Plant Materials Center
Bldg. 509, BARC - East, E. Beaver Dam Road
Beltsville, Maryland 20705
(301) 504-8175
(301) 504-8741
john.englert@wdc.usda.gov
http://plant-materials.nrcs.usda.gov/mdpmc/


Family Scientific Name: Betulaceae
Family Common Name: Birch Family
Scientific Name: Carpinus caroliniana
Common Name: Ironwood
Species Code: CARCAR
Ecotype: Cumberland Gap National Historical Park, George Washington Memorial Parkway
General Distribution: Nova Scotia to Minnesota, and south to Florida and Texas. Found in moist soil and along streams.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
Product Type: Bareroot (field grown)
Target Specifications: Stock Type: bareroot and container seedlings.
Height: 24-48 inches.
Root System: In containers, full fibrous root ball.
Propagule Collection: Collected at George Washington Parkway by G. Meyer on 11/3/95; by J. Kujawski on 9/16/96, 10/3/97 and 10/13/00; Colected in Cumberland Gap National Historical Park by J. Englert on 9/19/95, 10/3/96, 10/26/98 and 10/25/99.
Propagule Processing: Seed Processing: Seeds are rubbed apart from attached samaras; pieces of samara and other chaff are separated from seed by running material through a 2-screen clipper.
Seed storage: Seeds are generally sown the same fall they are collected, but if stored, they are placed in paper envelopes in a seed cooler at 40F, 35% relative humidity.
Seed dormancy: Seeds require cold stratification to germinate. Sowing in the fall permits seed to undergo natural stratification.
Seeds/Kg: Average of 26,300 seeds/kg.
Germination: Average germination is approximately 8%.
Purity: 97%.
Pre-Planting Treatments: Seed Treatments: None. We sow seed outdoors and use natural stratification to overcome any dormancy.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Propagation Environment: Outdoor nursery beds.
Container Type and Volume: Plants harvested bareroot may be potted in 1 gallon containers and later 2 gallon containers for Parks.
Growing Media: Container materials are planted into woody mix (3.8 cu ft. bale Sunshine #1, 4 cu. ft. of pine bark mulch, 20 oz. Nutricote and approximately 20 oz. endo-mycorrhizae).
Establishment Phase: Sowing Date: October/November.
% Emergence and Date: Seedlings generally emerge the spring following sowing.
Sowing/Planting Technique: Seeds are hand sown into rows (rows are 5 to 6 inches apart, seeds are sown in a thin continuous stream within rows). Endomycorrhizae are sprinkled over the seed before covering with about 1/4" of soil. The beds are then mulched with aged sawdust.
Establishment Phase: Sawdust mulch is scraped back in spring prior to seedling emergence. Newly emerged seedlings are monitored closely for irrigation needs. Young seedlings are shaded as soon as they emerge with poly screening at 30%. Shade cloth remains over seedlings until mid-August.
Active Growth Phase: Rapid Growth Phase: Because NPMC soil is a nutrient poor sandy loam, seedlings are fertilized from mid-April with a granular 10-10-10 once a week through early June. From mid-June through late July, the 10-10-10 is alternated with a granular urea every other week. From late July through late August the seedlings are fertilized with 10-10-10 every two weeks. Overhead irrigation is used after every fertilization. The rate of water applied is determined by soil moisture prior to irrigation.
Hardening Phase: Hardening Phase: During mid- to late summer, fertilization is cut back to twice monthly. Beginning in September, irrigation is only used in a severe droughty situation.
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Harvest Date: Dormant bareroot plants are harvested in early to mid-December.
Storage Conditions: Bareroot plants are bundled into groups of 25 (or whatever is manageable), and long roots are trimmed. Bundles are placed into plastic bins; roots are covered with sawdust. Bins are placed into a cold storage room (40ºF) and watered as needed during the winter. Gallon size and larger container plants are stored outside. Containers are laid on their side on weed barrier fabric, and covered with 2 layers of a microfoam insulating blanket. The blanket is secured over plants by threading a rope over the blanket between rebar anchors on either side of a block of plants.
Seed storage: Seeds are generally sown the same fall they are collected, but if stored, they are placed in paper envelopes in a seed cooler at 40F, 35% relative humidity.
Seed dormancy: Seeds require cold stratification to germinate. Sowing in the fall permits seed to undergo natural stratification.
Outplanting performance on typical sites: Outplanting Site: Cumberland Gap National Historical Park, George Washington Memorial Parkway.
Outplanting Date: Spring.
Other Comments: The USDA Ag Handbook 450 (1974) recommends collecting seeds while they are firm, but still a greenish color. We have had better germination following this procedure than after collecting seeds that appear to be more ripe (i.e. tan to brown).
References: Brown and Brown. 1992. Woody Plants of Maryland. Port City Press, Inc.

Englert, J. 1995, 1996, 1998, 1999. Annual Report to the National Park Service for Cumberland Gap National Historical Park. USDA NRCS National Plant Materials Center. Beltsville, MD.

Gleason, H and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. 2nd edition. New York Bot. Garden.

Kujawski, J. 1996, 1997, 2000. Annual Report to the National Park Service for George Washington Memorial Parkway. USDA NRCS National Plant Materials Center. Beltsville, MD.

USDA, Forest Service. 1974. Seeds of Woody Plants in the United States. USDA, Ag. Handbook 450.

White, J. 1995 Annual Report to the National Park Service for George Washington Memorial Parkway. USDA NRCS National Plant Materials Center. Beltsville, MD.

Citation:
Kujawski, Jennifer; Davis, Kathy M. 2001. Propagation protocol for production of field-grown Carpinus caroliniana plants; Natural Resources Conservation Service - Norman A. Berg National Plant Materials Center, Beltsville, Maryland. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org (accessed 23 July 2014). Moscow (ID): University of Idaho, College of Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery.